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Etiologies of PH Across the World

Christopher Barnett

Ghazwan Butrous

Vinicio de Jesus Perez

Erik Swenson


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Course ID: 2809

CEU Information


This session will focus on four common causes of PAH around the world. From a global perspective, schistosomiasis is the most common cause for PH, with HIV and chronic high-altitude exposure closely behind. Drug- and toxin-exposure however, has been identified as a specific problem in the western world. This class will highlight the key features of these particular types of PH/PAH, review both established and emerging paradigms, and discuss their implications on a global platform.

Course Authors


Ghazwan Butrous, MB, ChB, Ph.D., FESC, FRSA
University of Kent
Canterbury, U.K.


Christopher Barnett, M.D., MPH
Medstar Washington Hospital Center
Washington, D.C.

Drug and Toxins

Vinicio de Jesus Perez, M.D.
Stanford University
Stanford, Calif.

High Altitude

Erik R. Swenson, M.D.
University of Washington, Seattle
Seattle, Wash.

Course Reviewer

George J. Vuturo, Ph.D., RPh
CME/CE Director
Chief Compliance Officer
Planning Committee Member
Professional Education Services Group, LLC, Sterling, VA

Content Reviewer

Janice Agazio, Ph.D., CRNP, RN, FAANP, FAAN
Lead Nurse Planner Planning Committee Member Professional Education Services Group, LLC,
Sterling, VA Assistant Dean for Doctoral Programs and Ordinary Professor School
of Nursing the Catholic University of America, Washington, DC

CME Reviewer

Danielle Spencer
CME/CE Project Director
Professional Education Services Group, LLC, Sterling, VA

Intended Audience

This continuing education activity provides continuing education (CE) credits for:

  1. Physicians
  2. Nurses
  3. Pharmacists and Pharmacy Technicians
  4. Respiratory Therapists
  5. Social Workers
  6. Other Related Health Professionals

Learning Objectives

At the conclusion of this activity participants should be able to:

  1. Understand the pathology of PH associated with schistosomiasis, HIV drugs and toxins, and high altitude.
  2. Learn about the current research activities on schistosomiasis-associated PH and its impact on understanding the role of information on pulmonary vascular diseases.
  3. Discuss treatment options for HIV-associated PAH.
  4. Review the global impact and discuss recent genetic insights concerning the pathogenesis of drug and toxin PAH.
  5. Understand how acute excessive hypoxic pulmonary vasoconstriction (HPV) and other factors can lead to high-altitude pulmonary edema (HAPE).

Release Date

February 2, 2017

Expiration Date

December 31, 2017

Estimated Time to Complete This Activity

1 hour

Continuing Education Information

This continuing education activity is provided through a joint Providership Agreement between The Pulmonary Hypertension Association (PHA) and Professional Education Services Group (PESG). This activity will provide continuing education for nurses, pharmacists, respiratory therapists, and social workers. All other health care professionals completing this continuing education activity will be issued Certificate of Attendance which may be submitted to accrediting organizations or licensing boards to meet CE requirements.

Accreditation Statement


  • This activity has been planned and implemented in accordance with the accreditation requirements and policies of the Accreditation Council for Continuing Medical Education (ACCME) through a joint providership of Professional Education Services Group and the Pulmonary Hypertension Association. Professional Education Services Group is accredited by the ACCME to provide continuing medical education for physicians. This activity has been approved for a maximum of 1.0 hours of AMA PRA Category 1 Credits™. Physicians should only claim credit to the extent of their participation.


  • Professional Education Services Group is an accredited as a provider of continuing nursing education by the American Nurses Credentialing Center's Commission on Accreditation. This activity provides a maximum of 1.0 contact hours of nurse CE credit.

Pharmacists and Pharmacy Technicians

  • Professional Education Services Group is accredited by the Accreditation Council for Pharmacy Education as a provider of continuing pharmacy education. ACPE UAN 0829-0000-16-181-L04 (Pharmacists) and 0829-0000-16-181-L04 (Pharmacy Technicians). This activity provides 1.0 contact hours (0.10 CEUs) of continuing education credit. There is no cost for this activity. Your record of completion will be reported directly to the CPE Monitor.

Respiratory Therapists

  • The Continuing Respiratory Education (CRCE) system of the American Association for Respiratory Care (AARC) grants approval for 1.0 hours for this course.

Social Workers

  • This program is approved by the National Association of Social Workers for 1.0 Social Work continuing education contact hours.

Instructions for Earning Credit

This activity is a self-study program. In order to claim CE credit, participants must:

  1. View the content, examine any images and/or multimedia features, and review the content presented within all of the links provided. Once the course has been reviewed in its entirety, participants will be directed to the CE processing center at and claim CE credit.
  2. Complete a post-test and evaluation online. All evaluation questions must be completed in order to receive a CE credit.
  3. Upon successful completion of the post-test and online evaluation form, you can instantly download and/or print your certificate of credit. Your CE records will be stored at for later retrieval at your convenience.

CE Inquiries

For all CE related inquiries, please contact or PHA Online University at (301)-565-3004-x771.

Disclosure Policy

As a provider accredited by the Accreditation Council for Continuing Medical Education (ACCME), it is the policy of Professional Educational Services Group (PESG) to require the disclosure of anyone who is in a position to control the content of an educational activity. All relevant financial relationships with any commercial interests and/or manufacturers must be disclosed to participants at the beginning of each activity. The faculty and planners of this educational activity disclose the following:

  • Christopher Barnett, M.D., MPH, has not provided a disclosure
  • Erik R. Swenson, M.D., has no financial or non-financial arrangements, or affiliations to disclose.
  • Ghazwan Butrous, MB, ChB, Ph.D., FESC, FRSA, has no financial or non-financial arrangements, or affiliations to disclose.
  • Vinicio de Jesus Perez, M.D., has no financial or non-financial arrangements, or affiliations to disclose.


The information presented in this activity reflects the views of the faculty only and not necessarily those of the Pulmonary Hypertension Association (PHA), the sponsors or the educational grant providers. All participants should verify the information and data presented before treating patients or utilizing any therapies noted in these materials. No portion of this activity may be reproduced without the expressed written consent of PHA.

Technical Requirements

This course requires an internet browser. For optimum display, please use Mozilla Firefox, Safari or Google Chrome.

Privacy Policy

For information about PHA's privacy policy, visit

This enduring activity is made possible through unrestricted educational grants to the PHA Medical Education Fund from Actelion Pharmaceuticals, US; Gilead Sciences, Bayer HealthCare, and United Therapeutics.

©2016 Pulmonary Hypertension Association, 801 Roeder Road, Suite 1000, Silver Spring, MD 21910.